World Heart Day is celebrated every September 29, it seems to be a reminder to start a healthy lifestyle. The reason, until now cardiovascular disease and stroke remain ranked first in the cause of death of people around the world.
Data from WHO have shown an increase in coronary heart events in recent decades. The coronary heart becomes the number 2 killer in the world after stroke and causes one-third of deaths in people aged> 35 years. This increase may be due to several things, including rapid urbanization in general, resulting in a decrease in physical activity and unhealthy lifestyle changes.
The introduction of acute heart attack symptoms is very important because every minute delay in handling will have an impact on the extent of heart muscle death so that it is known as time is muscle.
Every organ in the human body needs oxygen and nutrients to work. These two main needs are carried by the blood that is automatically pumped (without brain command), endlessly, and regularly by the heart.
To run such a heavy function, the heart also requires the intake of oxygen and nutrients through coronary blood vessels. If the coronary artery is blocked, the intake of oxygen to the heart will be inhibited (ischemia) so that the heart pump function will be disrupted and the supply of oxygen throughout the body will be reduced. This blockage is caused by a pile of fat, calcium, protein, and inflammatory cells that are chronically embedded in the walls of arteries with varying sizes and consistency (commonly called plaque).
As a result of clogged plaque, increased oxygen requirements (such as under exercise or stress) without an increase in oxygen supply will cause typical chest pain symptoms (angina). This chest pain is usually <20 minutes long and decreases if the patient rests (oxygen demand is also reduced). This condition is called stable angina and is an early symptom before an acute heart attack in the future.
If the plaque is damaged, total blockage in the coronary arteries will occur and within a certain time result in the permanent death of heart muscle cells (infarction). This condition is known as an acute heart attack. Immediate treatment to open the total blockage is absolutely done quickly so that heart muscle can be maintained. The originator of a heart attack is a sudden increase in activity intensity (strenuous exercise), sudden acute stress and morning time.
Typical symptoms are perceived as typical angina, such as:
- Discomfort, such as heavy objects, pain, or pressure on the chest or heartburn.
- The discomfort spreads to the back area of the back, neck, arm, shoulder, or lower jaw.
- Can be accompanied by a feeling of bloating, fullness (fullness), such as choking, or hot stabbing in the chest.
- Sweating, nausea, vomiting, and dizzy head feel like dizziness.
- Severe limb weakness, anxiety, or breathing is severe
- The heartbeat feels fast or irregular.
This symptom is felt for at least 20 minutes and can not be reduced by rest or nitroglycerin administration.
There are several groups of people who experience symptoms that are not typical at the time of an acute heart attack, such as the elderly (aged> 75 years), young women (age 25-40 years), diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney failure, or people with dementia.
These unusual symptoms are called atypical angina, including:
- Pain with propagation in typical angina areas
- The Pain of indigestion.
- Breathlessness is not specific
- The Sudden weakness that is difficult to explain.
If you feel any of the above symptoms, please immediately come to the emergency room or call the emergency team for further heart evaluation. Examination to be performed is an electrical record of the heart, cardiac enzymes, and others. Delayed relief will increase the risk of heart damage and reduce life expectancy.
Plaque on coronary arteries is formed from the age of 20 years and the longer it gets thickened. To reduce the risk of heart attack, there are several attempts that can be done, such as:
- If you are a smoker, reduce your cigarette gradually to quit smoking.
- Controlling blood sugar levels within normal limits for people with Diabetes mellitus by maintaining the proper diet, regular exercise, and drug consumption according to a doctor’s prescription.
- Control blood lipid levels (LDL and triglycerides) within normal limits by reducing saturated fatty foods such as coconut milk, brain, intestine, liver, goat, fried, egg yolks, high-fat milk, butter, and others.
- Keep blood pressure within normal limits (<120 / 80mmHg) by limiting salt intake 6 grams/day (for patients with chronic hypertension), increase physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption by 4-5 servings per day, reduce fast and instant food consumption, and maintain weight within the ideal range.
- If you have more weight, lose weight in normal body mass index ranges.
- Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and avoid illegal drugs.